Tirat-HaCarmel - The Glass Vessels - 1996
In the summer and autumn of 1996 a trial excavation has been carried out by R. Tueg, on the western slopes of the Carmel ridge at Tirat-HaCarmel (Tueg 2004; License G-122-96). During the excavation hundreds of glass fragments were revealed. The indicative ones represent common vessels mainly from the Late Roman and Byzantine periods and probably of local production. The assemblage consists of tableware - bowls, beakers, goblets, jugs and bottles. Lamps and jewelry were found as well. Only few fragments represent vessels from the Islamic period. The bracelets are mainly from the Ottoman period and later.
Beakers, Goblets and Lamps
Juglets, Flasks and Bottles
In the summer and autumn of 1996 a trial excavation has been carried out by R. Tueg, on the western slopes of the Carmel ridge at Tirat-HaCarmel (Tueg 2004; License G-122-96). The trial excavation yielded hundreds of glass fragments but not a single intact vessel. 67 fragments were chosen to represent the assemblage. The glass items will be introduced by typological classification: bowls, cups, beakers, goblets and lamps, jugs, jars and bottles as well as jewelry. Most of the vessel fragments are made of light blue to greenish blue glass. Olive green, light purple and turquoise glass is rare.
The bowls form the largest typological group in the assemblage and there is a wide range of rim forms by which the group is further subdivided.
A.I. Bowls with flaring rim (Figure 1: 1-2)
Bowls with out-splaying, thickened rims are known from the Roman period, from the 2nd century A.D., although the shape of the body of these vessels is slightly diverse - the wall is less flaring and the vessel is deeper with base ring and folded tubular base rings (Isings 1957, Form 87). A rim fragment from Wadi ed-Daiyeh, similar to the fragment in Figure 1: 1, is dated to the 2nd century A.D. (Davidson-Weinberg and Barag 1974: 104, Pl: 5).
This type appears at Jalame in form of shallow and deep bowls. Most of these bowls were found in the factory dump and were dated to the second half of 4th century A.D. (Davidson-Weinberg 1988: 40, Figs. 4-1: 2, 3; 4-2: 6). Crowfoot and Harden classified these bowls as lamps (Crowfoot and Harden 1931: Pl. XXIX: 19).
1. B.7022/01, L.014 (Figure 1: 1): Rim diameter 18 cm; Fragment of rim and wall. Thickened flaring rim and thin wall curving in a shallow S-shape; greenish glass contains few minute and some small horizontal elongated bubbles. On surface are remains of thin iridescent patina.
Parallels: Crowfoot and Harden 1931: XXIX: 19; Von Saldern 1980: Pl. 24: 377-381; Davidson-Weinberg 1988: Fig. 4-1: 2, 3.
2. B.7049/10, L.022 (Figure 1: 2): Rim diameter 17 cm; Fragment of flaring thickened rim and thin wall. Light bluish green glass, contains minute bubbles; some iridescence on surface. Similar type as the bowl in Figure 1: 1. Base no 19 could belong to this bowl.
A.II. Bowls with horizontally out-folded rim or Overhanging rim (Figs. 3-4)
Two different bowls with similar characteristic rims are classified to this sub-group:
3. B.7024/01, L.017 (Figure 1: 3): Rim diameter 20 cm; Profile fragment of a shallow bowl. Horizontally out-folded rim, slightly concave; short vertical wall rounding toward base; pale, light, greenish blue glass covered with milky translucent, thin weathering.
This bowl was found together with other vessels dated to the Late Roman and Byzantine periods, but no parallel from this period was found. The closest parallel is a bowl from Nishapur dated to the 10th century that differs from the bowl from Tirat-HaCarmel in the fabric and production method.
Parallels: Kröger 1995: 47, Pls. 15, 16, from Nishapur.
4. B.4082/01, L.000 (Figure 1: 4): Rim diameter 13.2 cm; Out-folded rim, slightly curving downward. Body made of yellowish olive green; two turquoise threads fused to wall beneath the rim. Vertical wall might point to a deep bowl. Such vessels were found at Jalame and at Hanita, the last was unadorned. They are dated to the 4th century A.D.
Parallels: Davidson-Weinberg 1988: 50-51, Fig. 4-12: 96; Barag 1978: Fig. 10: 35.
A.III. Bowl with vertical, rounded rim (Figure 1: 5)
This type of bowl can be interpreted as a variation of the cylindrical bowl, a type that was common in the Early Islamic period, in the 9th-10th centuries.
Another interpretation, based on the nature of the glass points to a bowl or goblet on high base - a type classified as biconical vessels. Fragments of rim, body and trumpet base of a larger and shallower bowl were found at Caesarea in stratum II, dating to the Crusader period (not published). Fragments of biconical vessels, although not the rims, were found at Yoqne’am. They are also made of purple colored glass as the fragments from Caesarea and Tirat-HaCarmel. The vessels from Yoqne’am are considered to be European import (Lester 1996: 214).
5. B.20226/01, L.116 (Figure 1: 5): Rim diameter 12 cm; Fragment of rim and wall; slightly out curving rim; vertical wall with shallow convexity; light purple glass dulled by weathering; coarse surface.
Parallels: Kröger 1995: Fig. 4; Lamm 1929: Taf. 4: 4; 180: 9; Shindo 1992: Fig. 6-9: 6, 11.
A.IV. Bowl with double fold in wall bellow the rim (Figure 1: 6)
The characteristic of this type of bowl is the folding of the wall below the rim inward, upward and down. A single fragment was found in the excavation at Tirat-HaCarmel. Fragments of this type from Mezad Tamar were dated not later then the 3rd century (Erdmann 1977: 108). At Jalame, relatively small number of fragments indicates local production, thus contemporary with the factory, dating to the second half of the 4th century (Davidson-Weinberg 1988: 53, Fig. 4-14). A bowl of this type with rim more out curving and decorated wall with applied zigzag trail was found in burial cave 2 at K. el-Shubeika and was dated to late 4th century (Gorin-Rosen 2002: 304-305, Fig. 1: 2). Similar bowls from Jerash were dated to the early Byzantine period, 4th-5th century (Meyer 1987: 262).
6. B.4082/02, L.000 (Figure 1: 6): Rim diameter 9 cm; Fragment of rim. Slightly rounded rim, turning outward; light bluish glass.
Parallels: Erdmann 1977: Taf. 7: 872; Davidson-Weinberg 1988: Fig. 4-15: 109; Crowfoot 1957: Fig. 96: 4; Meyer 1987: 190, Fig. 6: Q.
A.V. Bowls with horizontal rib (Figure 1: 7-9)
The distinguishing feature of this type of bowls is the horizontal rib that encompasses the vessel below the rim, on the exterior. At Tirat-HaCarmel there is a variety of shapes including deep and shallow bowls of small and large sizes. Fragments of the type were found at Jalame with varieties in shape. These were dated to the second half of the 4th century (Davidson-Weinberg 1988: 45-47, Fig. 4-6: 49-65). The type was found in several sites in the Galilee such as a tomb at Hanita (Barag 1978: 15-16, Fig. 8: 26) and a burial cave near H. Sugar (Gorin-Rosen 1997: 96-97, Fig. 5: 2, 3) dated to the 4th century.
7. B.4082/03, L.000 (Figure 1: 7): Rim diameter 21 cm; Rim and wall fragment. Short wall curving toward base (probably a folded tubular ring); light bluish glass, containing few elongated horizontal bubbles; pearly, thin patina on surface.
Parallels: Barag 1978: Fig. 8: 26; Davidson-Weinberg 1988: Fig. 4-6: 56, 63; Dussart 1998: 63, Type BI.111b, Pl. 5: 8, 9, from Jordan; Syon 1998: 99, Fig. 14: 2; Gorin-Rosen 2002: 289-290, Fig. 1: 3 from Khirbet el-Shubeika.
8. B.4088/01, L.000 (Figure 1: 8): Rim diameter 12 cm; Rim fragment. Vertical, rounded rim; shallow concavity corresponds to the rib outside; light greenish glass, partly covered by a thin translucent patina.
9. B.4047/01, L.000 (Figure 1: 9): Rim diameter 11 cm; Fragment of rim and wall of a deep vessel. Inward turning rim; the rib has a deep concavity on the interior, corresponding to it; light greenish blue glass; surface covered by whitish, shiny patina.
A. VI. Bowls with out-folded rim (Figure 2: 10-15)
The common feature of the type is the rim, which is folded out and downward, and in most cases creating an air space in between. The rim can be straight or turning outward or inward. The width of the fold changes too. A large number of fragments of this type were found at Tirat-HaCarmel. Since the fragments are small, sometime the nature and the quality of the material and the context can help too in the dating.
This type is most popular and long living. The finds present a wide distribution through the Mediterranean, from the Roman period onward (Isings 1957: 41a, 45, Form 19 - from the 1st century A.D, Forms 115, 135 - from the 4th century A.D; Barag 1970: Types A, B, Pl. 30, 31, from the 2nd century to the end of the Byzantine period, but most of them can be dated to the 3rd-4th centuries).
A wide variety of bowls with out-folded rim was found at Karanis, dating from the 2nd century A.D. and later (Harden 1936: 221-242). An assemblage of various such bowls, mostly with ring bases was found at Hanita, dated to the end of 3rd and 4th centuries (Barag 1978: Figs. 6: 3-8, 9: 31, 10: 30-34). This common type of bowl appears in other burial caves in Galilee as well. At Jalame this type was found in thousands, mostly at the factory dump. There it is considered to be of local production, probably mass production, carelessly manufactured, dated to the second half of the 4th century (Davidson-Weinberg 1988: 41-43, Fig. 4-3). Fragments of such bowls, dated to the Byzantine period were found also at the Red Tower (al-Burj al-Ahmar) (Pringle 1986: 159-160, Fig. 52: 2, 4).
The bowls' bodies vary in shape and size as do the folds. Some of the bowls are big and shallow, others are small and deep. The deep ones might have had handles attached to the rim and body, for hanging as lamps. These date throughout the Byzantine period and continue into the Early Islamic period (Crowfoot and Harden 1931: Pl. XXX: 40, 41; Patrich 1988: Pl. XII: 1-7; Young 1993: Figs. 5, 6; Dussart 1998: Pl. 14: 16-27).
10. B.10-113/01, L.041 (Figure 2: 10): Rim diameter 16 cm; Fragment of rim and wall. Folded, vertical rim; olive greenish brown glass. The other finds in the locus - the pottery, oil lamps and other glass vessels, as well as the different color and quality of the bowl, indicate a Byzantine period dating.
Parallels: Barag 1970: Pl. 30, Type 2.7, dated to the 3rd and first half of the 4th centuries; Dussart 1998: Pl. 5: 19, Type BI. 4122, 28, Type 413, dated to 4th-8th centuries; Gorin-Rosen 2002: 290-291, Fig. 2: 7, from Khirbet el-Shubeika, dated to the 3rd and 4th centuries.
11. B.7055/01, L.22 (Figure 2: 11): Rim diameter 15 cm; Fragment of rim with thick fold. Green tinged glass.
12. B.5020/01, L.009 (Figure 2: 12): Rim diameter 15 cm; Similar to Fig. 2: 11. Greenish tinged glass; contains small bubbles and dark impurities. The bowl could be of the Byzantine period.
Parallels: Dussart 1998: Pl. 5: 32, Type 413. Stern 1997: 107, Fig. 1: 5, from Kisra.
13. B.7022/03, L.014 (Figure 2: 13): Rim diameter 20 cm; Fragment of upright rim. Light bluish tinged glass.
Parallels: Barag 1978: Fig. 6: 7, from Hanita; Meyer 1987: Fig. 6: H, I, from Jerash, dated to 4th-5th centuries.
14. B.3101/01, L.039 (Figure 2: 14): Rim diameter 26 cm; Rim fragment. Olive green glass. It was found together with Mamluk and Crusader pottery, Mamluk bracelets and two coins, one dated to 390 A.D, and a Byzantine coin transferred to Islamic in 660 A.D.
Parallels: Barag 1970: Pl. 30, type 2.9-1, dated to the 3rd and the first half of the 4th centuries
15. B.7027/02, L.017 (Figure 2: 15): Rim diameter 15 cm; Fragment of rim and short vertical wall. Olive green glass, contains small and large, horizontally elongated bubbles; pearly, flaking off weathering. It was found together with the bowl presented in Figure 1: 3 and a stemmed goblet.
Parallels: Barag 1967: Fig. 16: 22, from Shavei Zion, dated to 5th-6th centuries; Barag 1970: Pl. 31: Type 11-3; Erdmann 1977: Taf. 1: 4, from Mezad Tamar (bowl with handles); Barag 1978: Fig. 10: 34, from Hanita.
A.VI.a. Bowl with folded collar rim (Figure 2: 16)
16. B.7035/01, L.017 (Figure 2: 16): Rim diameter 24 cm; Fragment of rim (not the entire height of the fold is preserved). Olive green glass, contains minute and small bubbles (some are horizontally elongated) and black impurities; part of surface covered by translucent iridescent patina.
This bowl is a sub type of the folded rim group. The bowls are usually large and shallow dishes, mostly with ring bases. The characteristic feature is the broad fold of the rim, which height, in this case, is unknown. It can be proportional, though, to the size of the vessel, as it arises in the discussion on this group at Jalame (Davidson-Weinberg 1988: 47-48). This shape first appeared in the Roman period (Isings 1957: Form 118). Barag dated it to the 4th century (Barag 1970: 137, Type 16-2). At Jalame, the type was found mostly in the factory dump, dated to the second half of the 4th century. Similar bowls were found in other sites dated to the 4th century such as the burial cave near H. Sugar (Gorin-Rosen 1997a: 96-97, Fig. 5: 1) and in the burial caves at Kisra (Stern 1997: 106-107, Fig. 1: 6). A bowl with collar rim was found in burial cave 2 at Khirbet el-Shubeika (Gorin-Rosen 2002: 303, 305, Fig. 1: 1). Dussart classified it as Type BII.311, bringing examples from Jordan (Dussart 1998: 75, 251, Pl. 11: 2-10). Most of the examples are dated to the second half of the 4th century but a fragment from Jerash was dated as late as the first half of the 8th century.
Parallels: Barag 1970: Pl. 31: 16; Davidson-Weinberg 1988: 48, Fig. 4-7: 72; Cohen 1997: 400, 397, Pl. 1: 10, from Hamat Gader.
A.VII. Bowls with rounded, thickened rim (Figure 2: 17-18)
Bowls with thickened rim are known from the 1st century to the 4th century A.D. (Isings 1957: Form 85). This group is represented in many sites although not in large quantities, dated to the second half of the 3rd and 4th century (Barag 1970: 137-140). The bowls can be either shallow or deep (Davidson-Weinberg 1988: 44-45).
17. B.18-222/02, L.109 (Figure 2: 17): Rim diameter 19 cm; Rim and wall fragment. Yellowish glass with brown streaks; the surface is weathered.
Although the shape has parallels, the material is not characteristic to the period, so, a later date might be considered as 12th-13th centuries, as suggested by the pottery.
Parallels: Meyer 1987: Fig. 6: K, Jerash.
18. B.7055/03, L.022 (Figure 2: 18): Rim diameter 18 cm; Rim and wall fragment. Thickened rim; wall with sharp inclination toward the base; light blue glass.
Parallels: Barag 1970: Pl. 31: Type 13-3.
A.VIII.1. Concave bases
Several fragments of concave bases can be ascribed to bottles with globular shape, others can be considered as belonging to bowls, as these which are represented in the catalogue.
19. B.7049/09, L.022 (Figure 3: 19): Base diameter 7.2 cm; Fragment of concave base with pontil mark. Light blue glass; widely splaying wall above the curve to bottom. It might belong to the bowl in Figure 1: 2, which is of similar glass and was found at the same locus. Such bases from Jerash are considered as bowl shape lamps with out folded rims, most of them dated to the 4th-5th centuries (Bauer 1938: 530). At Sardis, similar bases although somewhat thicker at the center, are classified as bowl shape lamps with small hanging handles (Von Saldern 1980: 45, Type 1, Pl. 23: 234).
Parallels: Bauer 1938: Fig. 23: 25 (381 D); Von Saldern 1980: Pl. 23: 234; Erdmann 1977: Taf. 3: 103.
A.VIII.2. Folded tubular base rings
A large quantity of folded tubular base rings was found at Tirat-HaCarmel. This type of base was abundant in the Roman and the Byzantine periods, ascribed to various types of vessels. In some cases the classification is impossible.
20. B.5020/02 L009 (Figure 3: 20): Base diameter 9 cm; Fragment of tubular base ring. Greenish tinged transparent glass; it might belong to the bowl presented in Figure 2: 12, considering the color and quality of the material.
21. B.7022/04, L.014 (Figure 3: 21): Base diameter 10 cm; Fragment of short, tubular base ring. Bluish green glass covered by light iridescent patina. The wall spreads out horizontally, so the vessel can be considered a bowl as the base presented in Figure 3: 20. Bowls with such bases are presented by Barag as Types 2: 14 which is dated from the 2nd century onward and types 14: 9, 11, 14 - dated to the 3rd and beginning of the 4th century. They appear at Hanita, Nahariya and other sites (Barag 1970: 67, 74, 135-137). Isings Form 42 and 45 are bowls with low tubular base ring which first appeared in the 1st century, and continued in the 3rd century, as Form 97 A, B. Bowls from Cyprus, similar to those from Hanita are dated to the first two centuries A.D. (Vessberg 1952: 112, Pl. I: 4, 5). A similar base was found at Mezad Tamar and was dated to the 3rd-5th centuries (Erdmann 1977: Taf. 2: 72).
22. B.7022/03, L.014 (Figure 3: 22): Base diameter 8 cm; Base fragment. Out-splaying low tube; greenish glass covered with light iridescent weathering.
23. B.7015/01, L.014 (Figure 3: 23): Base diameter 7.5 cm; Base fragment. High out-splaying ring base; olive green glass covered by iridescent patina.
24. B.4071/02 L 000 (Figure 3: 24): Base diameter 8 cm; Base ring. High tubular ring base, slightly splaying out; diagonally out-splaying wall; light bluish glass with stains of iridescent weathering on surface.
25. B.20-194/01, L.084 (Figure 3: 25): Base diameter 9 cm; Base fragment. High, folded tubular, splaying out ring; greenish tinged glass. This base might belong to a jug as well.
Parallels: Meyer 1987: Fig. 7: D, from Jerash, Early Byzantine.
26. B.7049/11, L.022 (Figure 3: 26): Base center, probably of a large bowl with high folded tubular base ring. Thickened at the center with pontil mark. The glass is green and contains some bubbles. The surface is covered by light iridescent patina; below it more iridescent stains.
The high base is similar to Barag’s Type A-3, 4 (Barag 1970: Pl. 30) dating to 4th-7th centuries.
27. B.19-210/01, L.101 (Figure 3: 27): Base diameter 10.6 cm; convex base with double, tubular folded edge; greenish glass covered with iridescent patina.
B.I. Beakers (Figure 4: 28-31)
Four fragments are classified as beakers. They are typical to the Syro-Palestinian region, dating to the Late Roman period (3rd-4th centuries, although they are found in the western part of the Mediterranean from the 1st and the 3rd-4th centuries as well (Isings 1957: 136-138, Forms 34, 109).
28. B 4047/01, L.000 (Figure 4: 28): Rim diameter 9 cm; Fragment of rim and wall. The flaring rim is thickened and flattened; decorated with a trail below rim; yellowish green glass. The rim is similar (but not exact) to Barag’s Types 4.4, 4.6 (Barag 1970: Pl. 32: 4.4-1, 4.6, 4.7). At Jalame, this sub-type of beaker is considered to be of local production, dated to the second half of the 4th century (Davidson-Weinberg 1988: 60-61, Fig. 4-23: 166). Beakers with this type of rim usually have a thick pad base or thickened open concave base.
Parallels: Crowfoot 1957: 408, Fig. 95: 20, from Samaria, dated to the 4th-5th centuries; Pollak R. 1999: 326, Fig. 2: 16 from Caesarea, dated to the 4th-5th centuries; Gorin?]Rosen 2002: 292, Fig. 1: 15, from Khirbet el-Shubeika, dated to the 4th century. Syon 1998: 96, Fig. 15: 1, 2, from Akhziv.
29. B.3019/01, L.015 (Figure 4: 29): Base diameter 4.8 cm; Small folded pushed-in base. Splayed-out base; light blue glass.
Parallels: Barag 1970: Type 4.5, Pl. 32. Crowfoot 1957: 414, Fig. 96: 10, from Samaria. Pollak 1999: 326, Fig. 2: 22 from Caesarea dated to the 4th-5th centuries A.D.
30. B.19-218/01, L.112 (Figure 4: 30): Base diameter 4.8 cm; Small folded splayed out base; greenish glass.
Parallels: Davidson-Weinberg 1988: 62, Fig. 4-24: 190.
31. B.7022/05, L.014 (Figure 4: 31): Base diameter 4.5 cm; Small, folded splayed out base, pushed up center with pontil mark; bluish glass.
Parallels: Davidson-Weinberg 1988: 62, Fig. 4-24: 191.
The bases Figure 4: 29-31 belong to a different sub-type of beaker, which is characterized by a vertical simple or thickened rim, unadorned wall that slightly tapers downward, and a sharp curve toward the folded and pushed in base. Examples of this type are found at Samaria (Crowfoot and Harden 1957: Fig. 96: 10) and Jalame (Davidson-Weinberg 1988: Fig. 4-24).
B.II. Stemmed Goblets (Figure 4: 32-39)
Nine fragments of different parts of the vessels comprise this category. The stemmed goblets probably had various uses besides drinking vessels - such as lamps.
Isings considered stem goblets as an Eastern type most common in the 4th-7th centuries, although they were found also earlier and in the West as well (Isings 1957: 139-140). Barag dated them to the Late Byzantine period (Barag 1970: 146-148, Pl. 33: type 5.1-5.10) as they are dated at Jerash (Meyer 1987: Fig. 8: Y-cc), but at Karanis they appear from the 4th century (Harden 1936: 167-173).
32. B.3096/01, L.039 (Figure 4: 32): Rim diameter 6 cm; Fragment of rim and wall. Vertical, rounded rim and slightly concave wall form a bag shape cup; greenish tinge glass. Rim fragments are not distinctive to goblets only; lamps might have similar ones as well.
Parallels: Barag 1970: Type 13-3, Pl. 40. A stemmed lamp with the parallel rim, dated to the end of the Byzantine period (7th century).
33. B.7039/01, L.022 (Figure 4: 33): Rim diameter 6.8 cm; Rim and wall fragment. Thickened, rounded rim, slightly turning inward; thin wall with a shallow concavity below the rim; greenish-blue glass.
Parallels: Crowfoot and Harden 1931: Pl. XXIX: 21; Tatoon-Brown 1984: Figs. 65: 12, 66: 27 from Carthage, dated to the 6th century; Patrich 1988: Pl. XIII: 9, from Rechov, part of lamp, dated to the 5th-7th centuries; Peleg and Reich 1992: Fig. 18: 4, from Caesarea, dated to the Byzantine period.
34. B.7049/06, L.022 (Figure 4: 34): Rim diameter 5.6 cm; Fragment of rim and wall. Thickened rim bent inward almost horizontally; thin wall, mold decorated with diagonal almost horizontal, dense fluting; greenish blue glass.
Parallels: Barag 1970: 148, Type 5.9, Pl. 33, dated to the end of the Byzantine period; Isings 1957: 139, Form 111.
35. B.7002/01, L.000 (Figure 4: 35): Rim diameter 8 cm; Rim and wall fragment. Thickened rim, concavity in wall below rim, forming probably a bell shape cup; diagonal fluting decorate the wall, as in figure 4: 34.
36. B.7049/07, L.022 (Figure 4: 36): Base diameter 4.4 cm; Foot and short stem. Folded base and hollow stem; pontil scar below the stem on bottom; light blue tinged glass, contains bubbles; surface covered by iridescent patina.
37. B.7039/02, L.022 (Figure 4: 37): Base diameter 5.4 cm; The base is concave and folded with tubular air loop. The stem is short, formed by constrictions which separate between the base, the stem and the cup. The stem is blocked on its lower part and open toward the cup. This might indicate that the whole goblet was produced as one unit. The pontil mark is sited on the bottom bellow the stem. The metal is pale light blue.
38. B7027/03, L.017 (Figure 4: 38): Base diameter 4.4 cm; folded concave base, hollow stem. Constriction between base and stem; pontil mark; light bluish glass, contains bubbles; surface covered by iridescent patina.
Parallels: Meyer 1987: Fig. 8: Y, bb, dated to Late Byzantine and Umayyad periods.
39. B.4082/03, L.000 (Figure 4: 39): Base diameter 5.4 cm; Folded concave base. Green glass covered with iridescent weathering.
Parallels: Meyer 1987: Fig. 9: 22, from Jerash, dated to Late Roman and Byzantine periods.
40. B.20-225/01, L.113 (Figure 4: 40): Lower part of cup and part of stem. Thick bottom of cup is and part of solid stem; greenish glass.
B.III. Lamps (Figure 4: 40-42)
Fragments of solid cylindrical stems represent the lamp category. Some of them are tooled at the lower end to form a bulge. The upper part probably had a form of cup or bowl. This type of lamp is common in the late Byzantine period in numerous sites (Barag 1970: 182-183, Pl. 40: Types 13.3-13.5) and continues into the Islamic period (Hadad 1998a: 63).
41. B.7039/03, L.022 (Figure 4: 41): Fragment of solid cylindrical stem of 1.7 cm; diameter. Dark green glass, covered by iridescent patina.
Parallels: Cohen 2000: 168-170, Pl. II: 24, from Ramat Hanadiv, dated on comparative base to the 5th-7th centuries.
42. B.8110/01, L.000 (Figure 4: 42): Fragment of solid stem ending with bulge. A split on the end of stem from the pontil; transparent light blue glass, contains bubbles.
Parallels: Barag 1970: s182, Type 13-3-1, Pl. 40, dated to the 7th century; Barag 1967: Fig. 16: 24 from Shavei Zion; Hadad 1998a: 66, 68, Fig. 2: 23, 27, Type 2, dated to the Umayyad period, from Bet Shean.
C. Juglets, Flasks and Bottles
C.I. Juglets (Figure 5: 43-44)
Two fragments are classified as juglets. Some of the rims, which might be jugs, are classified as flasks and bottles because of lack of evidence. Most of the juglets were dated by Barag to the Late Roman period, only a minority is considered to be Byzantine (Barag 1970: 159).
43. B.7049/04, L.022 (Figure 5: 43): Trail handle, circular in section; pulled up and folded; upper end is broken; attached to thin wall of shoulder; olive green glass, containing dark impurities; surface covered by whitish iridescent patina.
Parallels: Davidson-Weinberg 1988: 69, Fig. 4-30: 258.
44. B.7049/05, L.022 (Figure 5: 44): Trail handle, tooled rounded section with a ridge. Lower part broken, the upper part rounded and folded nearby the attachment to the rim; funnel shaped and in-folded rim; green glass with dark impurities; surface covered with iridescent patina.
Parallels: Davidson-Weinberg 1988: 69, Fig. 4-30: 257; Cohen 1997: 414, Pl. V: 6, 7 dated to the Late Roman period, from Hammat Gader; Katsnelson 1999: 72, Fig. 3: 7, dated to the 4th century From Migdal Ashqelon, p. 73 more references; Gorin-Rosen 2002: 307-312, Fig. 313-16, dated to the second half of the 4th century, from Khirbet el-Shubeika. Most of these juglets are decorated with trails.
As flasks were defined all those fragments of rim and neck of closed vessels without any sign of handle attachment.
Flasks with rims folded inward are fairly common, considering the quantity of rims found at the site. They are big vessels and their body shape may vary. Dussart classified infolded rims with tapering or straight neck to types BX, based on large assemblages from Jordan, dating from the 4th to the 8th centuries, although most of the examples bear the date of the 5th-6th centuries
45. B.7015/03, L.014 (Figure 5: 45): Rim diameter 6 cm; funnel mouth was probably connected to cylindrical neck. This type of mouth can belong to bottle as the one in Figure 6: 61 or to a juglet. Light pale blue glass; pitted, iridescent surface.
Parallels: Davidson-Weinberg 1988: 72, Fig. 4-33: 288, from Jalame, dated by the context to the pre-factory period (before 351); Barag 1974: Fig. 2: 3, from Netiv Halamed-Hei, a flask with similar rim, dated to the second half of the 4th and beginning of the 5th centuries; Tatoon?]Brown 1984: Fig. 65: 5, from Carthage, dated to the end of the 5th and beginning of the 6th centuries; Dussart 1998: 41, 146-149, 281, most of the examples date to the 5th-6th centuries; Gorin-Rosen 2002: 294, 308, Fig. 4: 24, cave 1, Fig. 3: 14, cave 2 at Khirbet el-Shubeika, juglets with similar rim and mouth, dated to the second half of the 4th century and early 5th century
46. B.20-226/02, L.116 (Figure 5: 46): Rim diameter 7 cm; Fragment of rim and neck. Neck tapering down; pale blue glass containing bubbles. The body might be globular.
Parallels: Barag 1970: Pl. 42, Type 15-18, from Hanita, tomb XV, are dated to the first half of the 4th century; Crowfoot 1957: Fig. 94: 6, from Samaria, dated to the 3rd century; Dussart 1998: 275, Pl. 35: 29, dated to Umayyad period.
47. B.7055/03, L.022 (Figure 5: 47): Rim diameter 6 cm; Fragment of rim and neck. Neck slightly tapering down; green glass, contains minute bubbles and blowing spirals; iridescence on surface.
Parallels: Davidson-Weinberg 1988: 75, Fig. 4-33: 296, from Jalame, dating to the second half of the 4th century; Dussart 1998: 137-138, 276, Type 1132b1, Pl. 36: 14, 15, dated to the Byzantine and umayyad periods; Gorin-Rosen 2002: 306-307, Fig. 2: 10 from cave 2 at Khurbat el-Shubeika, dated to the 5th and 6th centuries.
48. B.7015/02, L.014 (Figure 5: 48): Rim diameter 4.2 cm; Rim and neck fragment. Neck slightly tapers downward; pale greenish blue glass, contains bubbles and dark impurities.
Parallels: Dussart 1998: 286, Pl. 46: 2, 3, Type BX.421, dated to the 1st to 3rd centuries and the Byzantine period or page 282, Pl. 42: 8, Type BX3242a, found with Byzantine pottery. Gorin-Rosen 2002: 306-307, Fig. 2: 9, dated to Byzantine period, from cave 2, at Khurbat el-Shubeika.
49. B.7015 /05, L.014 (Figure 5: 49): Rim diameter 8 cm; Rim and neck fragment. Neck slightly tapers downward; light green glass.
Parallels: Delougaz and Haines 1960: Pl. 59: 13, from Khirbat al-Karak, dated to the 6th century; Erdmann 1977: Taf. 4: 277, from Mezad Tamar; Peleg 1994: Fig. 15: 6, 7, from Beit-Shean; Dussart 1998: 153, Pl. 44: 21-26, Type BX.5321, it is considered an early Roman type, further used in the Byzantine period, or Type BX.1125b1, dated to Late Byzantine and Umayyad periods (7th century), Pl. 35: 28, 32.
50. B.7049/03, L.022 (Figure 5: 50): Rim diameter 6.6 cm; Fragment of rim and neck. Neck slightly tapering down with a ridge which probably was not done intentionally; green glass contains bubbles; surface covered by iridescent patina.
Parallels: Davidson-Weinberg 1988: 75, Fig. 4-35: 296, from Jalame; Erdmann 1977: Taf. 4: 279, from Mezad Tamar; Hadad 1998: Pl. 6: 102, 105, vol. II, from Bet Shean, dated to the Umayyad period.
51. B.10-105/01, L.041 (Figure 5: 51): Rim diameter 6.2 cm; Rim and neck fragment; vertical neck; thin wall decorated with vertical fluting, suggesting that the vessel was first blown into a mold. The glass is of greenish blue tinge; on surface weathering in the form of iridescence and stains.
52. B.5079/01, L.009 (Figure 5: 52): Rim diameter 6 cm; Rim and neck fragment. Rounded thickened rim; light green glass; whitish, pearly weathering and iridescent stains on surface. Found with Byzantine pottery.
Parallels: Crowfoot 1957: Fig. 94: 7, from Samaria, dated to the 3rd century; Gorin-Rosen 1999: 206, 208, Fig. 1: 9, (with further references) from Ras Abu Ma’aruf (Pisgat Ze’ev East A), the type appeared in Late Roman period and became common during the Byzantine period.
53. B.3096/02, L.039 (Figure 5: 53): Rim diameter 4.2 cm; Rim and neck fragment. Similar to the one in Figure 5: 52, although smaller; light blue glass. Found together with Crusader and Mamluk pottery, and several bracelet fragments that are probably Mamluk.
C.II.3. Decorated bottles (Figure 6: 54-60)
The decoration is composed of trails which are wound below the rim or around the neck. The shape of neck and the rim vary from slim to wide cylindrical or flaring rim with cylindrical neck. Trail decoration is a common feature of the Byzantine period.
54. B.7049/08, L.022 (Figure 6: 54): Rim diameter 5.4 cm; Rim fragment; wildly splaying out funnel shape rim. Trail and body of same glass; greenish blue glass contains dark impurities; iridescent patina on surface. This kind of rim with the trail decoration usually belongs to jugs, but in our case it was classified as a bottle because of the lacking handle as a distinguishing feature
Parallels: Barag 1970: 162, Pl. 36, Type 8-14-1, the date is not precise, it is considered to be Late Roman or Byzantine. Davidson-Weinberg 1988: 65-66, Fig. 4-27: 207, 208, 211, from Jalame, are considered to be the factory product, dated to the second half of 4th century Crowfoot 1957: 416, Fig. 96: 9, from Samaria, from the town site; Gorin-Rosen 2002: 308, Fig. 3: 20, a pinched funnel mouth of juglet from cave 2 at Khirbet el-Shubeika, decorated with trails, dated to the 4th and early 5th centuries.
55. B.7039/04, L.022 (Figure 6: 55): Rim diameter 5 cm; Funnel shape rim fragment. Convex wall, decorated with trail of the same color as the vessel, wound five winds; light green glass. It can be either a jug or a bottle.
Parallels: Barag 1970: 193, Pl. 42, Type 15-20, dated to the 5th-7th centuries Davidson-Weinberg 1988: 66, Fig. 4-27: 209, from Jalame. Baur 1938: Fig. 31: 62(384) from Jerash.
56. B.7049/01, L.022 (Figure 6: 56): Rim diameter 4 cm; Rim and neck fragment. Slightly tapering neck, thin wall with fine trails wound around the neck, of the same color as the bottle; olive green glass contains large elongated bubbles; light iridescent weathering on surface. The bottle might have had a globular body.
Parallels: Barag 1967: Fig. 16: 7, from Shavei Zion, dated to the 5th-6th centuries Deougaz and Haines 1960: Pl. 60: 6, from Khirbat al-Karak dated to the 6th century; Barag 1970: 193-194, Pl. 42, Type 15-21, dated to the 6th century
57. B.7022/05, L.014 (Figure 6: 57): Rim diameter 6 cm; Rim and neck fragment. Thickened rim and slightly tapering neck with remains of trail wound; light greenish blue glass, contains bubbles.
58. B.7039/03, L.022 (Figure 6: 58): Rim diameter 5 cm; Rim and neck fragment; vertical rim and cylindrical neck. Fine trail of the same color wound around the neck, the upper trail is thicker. Greenish blue glass with white weathering.
Parallels: Barag 1970: 196, Pl. 43, Type 15-27-1 or Type 15-29-1, dated to the 5th-6th centuries; Peleg 1994: Fig. 15: 8, from Beit Shean.
59. B.7049/02, L.022 (Figure 6: 59): Rim diameter 6.2 cm; Fragment of rim, neck and part of shoulder. Fire rounded vertical rim, cylindrical neck with constriction at the base of the neck; ten winds of fine trail wound around the center of the neck, same color as the body; greenish blue glass; weathered surface, by mean of stains and whitish, iridescent patina.
Parallels: Barag 1967: Fig. 16: 5 from Shavei Zion, dated to the 5th-6th centuries.
60. B.5052/01, L.009 (Figure 6: 60): Rim Diameter 6 cm; Rim and neck fragment. Rounded rim and short conical neck; decorated with diagonal fluting that indicates a phase of blowing into mold and further blowing; a dark blue trail was wound around the rim four times; olive green glass; whitish pearly flaking off patina, iridescence on surface. This method of decoration was common in the 4th century in the East and West and the production continued on in the late 4th and 5th centuries (Katsnelson 1999: 76).
Parallels: Katsnelson 1999: 77, 78, Fig. 4: 9, from Ashqelon.
61. B.4071/04, L.000 (Figure 6: 61): Fragment of funnel shape mouth connected to cylindrical neck, widening toward the shoulder. Bluish green glass contains vertical elongated bubbles. It might be part of a jug as Barag’s Type 8-13 which he dated to the second half of the 3rd and first half of the 4th century (Barag 1970: 162, Pl. 36) or a bottle of the Type 15-15 dated to the second half of the 3rd and the first half of the 4th. It could be interpreted also as bottles from the end of the 4th and the first half of the 5th century (Barag 1970: 192, Pl. 42).
D. Miscellaneous Bottles
62. B.20-217/01, L.110 (Figure 6: 62): Rim diameter 3 cm; Rim and neck fragment. Funnel shape neck; thick wall with a groove in the interior just below the rim; dull green glass. The fragment belongs to a bottle from the Islamic period that could have had bell shape or globular body.
Parallels: Shindo 1992: Fig. 6-15: 6, 25, from Fustat. Harden 1955: Fig. 37: 14-B, from Soba, dated to 9th-12th centuries. Lane 1938: Fig. 10: A, from Al Mina, dated to 9th-10th centuries Bamber 1988: Fig. 53: 10, from ‘Ana in Iraq, dated to Abbasid period.
63. B.5052/02, L.110 (Figure 6: 63): Maximum diameter 3.5 cm; Fragment of neck. A fold forms a horizontal exterior tube; deep turquoise glass, very bubbly with elongated bubbles.
Parallels: Lane 1938: Fig. 10: D, from Al Mina, dated to 9th-10th centuries. Shindo 1992: Fig. 6-8: 17, from Fustat.
64. B.20-200/01, L.087 (Figure 7: 64): Inner diameter 5.8 cm; Dark opaque wound coils; surface iridescent might be dated to the umayyad period.
Parallels: Spear 1992: Fig. 24: 1.
65. B.11-147/02, L.056 (Figure 7: 65): Inner diameter 8.2 cm; section pointed oblique; translucent olive green glass covered on one side by opaque green with an orange patch. Two trails of twisted white and black glass, applied on the corners, considered to be Mamluk or later (spear 1992: fig. 13, 54-55).
66. B.16-177/01, L.000 (Figure 7: 66): inner diameter 5.5 cm; Wide and flattened by pressed decoration in form of double row of small rectangles; transparent light blue glass, with iridescent patina. It can be identified as a variant of Type B - tooled or molded, monochrome, although none of the examples is similar. This group is considered as pre-Islamic but, its production continues even later (Spear 1988: 55). On the other hand, considering the section it fits into Type A-3 which is dated to the Mamluk period or later (Spear 1992: 48).
67. B.2043/01, L.023 (Figure 7: 67): Inner diameter 8.8 cm; Half bracelet preserved. Green transparent bubbly glass; coated with yellow-orange opaque glass; Decorated with red-brown and green patches and a fused-in brown trail. Considered to be Ottoman or Late Hebron period (Spear 1992: Fig. 14, 55).
Considering the preservation condition of the glass - which is in a very fragmentary state - some inaccuracy in dating might occur, especially for some bases and rims of long living types. Most of the glass fragments belong to common tableware vessels, probably of local production, either of Tirat-HaCarmel or from the vicinity (production center at Tirat-HaCarmel not yet found). Only the minority of the vessels was decorated, mainly bottles of the Byzantine period, with the most common type of decoration-trail winding.
Most of the glass is from the Late Roman to the Byzantine period; only few fragments can be dated to the Islamic period or later. Some of the bracelets could be from the Mamluk period while others - from the Ottoman period.
The glass fragments were found in various squares, in small quantities in each locus and in the surface loci. Relatively large assemblages were found only in 3 Loci from square 7 (Loci 7014, 7017 and 7022). These 3 loci contained vessels dated from late 3rd or early 4th century to Late Byzantine period (Figure 8). Their material can be related to the remains of the domestic building that was found in the square.
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